THE ABC OF FOREX TRADING - Finance Illustrated

Foreign Currency ACB Reporting for Day Trading Forex

Hello,
I am looking for any advice and insight into tracking trading and investments with USD borrowed margin involved as a Canadian, as well as Day Trading / Forex multiple pairs.
It sounds like it is possible to track the Adjusted Cost Base of Forex Trading through tracking long and borrowed positions when doing a spot trade on a currency pair such as EUUSD with Canadian Currency, but I can't find too many resources on how-to, or software that assists with this other than.
https://www.adjustedcostbase.ca/blog/calculating-adjusted-cost-base-with-foreign-currency-transactions/
Holding Canadian Dollars as the Account Currency in a Forex Trading Accouunt
My understanding is that
1) Going long on EUUSD, with EUR being the base currency, USD being the quote currency, you're purchasing EUR, and borrowing USD to cover the EUR position?
2) Going short on EUUSD, you're borrowing EUR and selling it, and also borrowing USD to go long on USD position?
Anyone have any insight, or resources, or referrals to trading/investment tax accountants?
If the frequency of trades are say 2-3 times a week (with say 1-2 trades per day, enter and exit same day), but this is not a full-time profession, would this be better tracked as capital transactions (therefore need to track ACB in a capital account) or just claim these transactions as income transactions for simplicity?
Thanks
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ACB - A Convertibles Update

I thought it a good time to revisit ACB's prior convertible debt issue, in lieu of their share price advances and further convertible dumps.
For background, at the bottom is a post I did in June 2017 that pulled their debt apart, and tried to make some sense of it.
This is what ACB has done since. There's millions more outstanding, I'll consolidate and update at some point.
They'd triggered an earlier tranche debentures at trigger of some $25MM, squashing that bug earlier this month. They'll be booking a $2MM charge against income in Q2-2018 for this. As well, given share price of today, the accelerated 17MM tranche @ $3 will be executed in December. While it's cash proceeds of some $50MM, they'll be taking a charge against income of $90MM for it in Q2-2018 as well.
Yeah, convertibles can become very expensive money.
One view would be that ACB is doing it now, because it's just gonna become waaay more expensive later on. And, they can deploy that $50MM to build hard assets.
If shares soar, it'll be seen as having been prudent. One way or the other, they've just paid $1.75 for a dollar, 50 million times.
There's more issues as well: 1.9MM 5yr @ $2.76, 1MM 5yr @ $2.39, and.........drum roll...
150MM of 3yr options and warrants for $75MM cash, priced at $3 & $4 respectively in Q1 2018.
I'm gonna need some time and a quantum computer to hash this out. On the face of it, this all makes the phrase 'holy shit' seem a quiet understatement.
Ima gonna do a long haul on this and post it - mainly because the totality of it is so massive relative to the company.
Stay tuned...
***Deconstructing Convertible Debentures - or - How to Quietly Shift Massive Costs onto Shareholders**** - June 2017
I've made references to this before, but, I think a 'Dick and Jane' primer on the subject should be done. Despite the big words in the title, this stuff is really straightforward, and the math is grade 9 level.
It's all about financing.
That is, it's just like you going to the bank for a mortgage or a car loan. You need money you don't have to buy the shit you'd like. So. You're likely not gonna issue debentures for that Maserati (or that creamy lil' Ford Focus you simply have to have), but you will need to pledge some capital or use your credit worthiness to get financing. Businesses do the same thing. There's just more ways for them to do it. I'm not gonna go into them all - innovation in credit and credit-related derivatives is holy-fuck level complex.
Fortunately, we don't need to go anywhere near that heady stuff (google 'interest rate call swaption' if you've got a finance fetish. Or maybe you're an applied mathematician/financial engineer temporally hedging your long dated forex book at a macro level).
Some complexity does play a role here though, but awareness is all that's needed.
First - Definitions:
Second - Options
Options are a derivative that is comprised of two values: intrinsic and extrinsic.
Third - What's a convertible debenture?
It's debt taken by a company, and given to a lender. It's simply a promise to pay. The lender asks for interest to be paid on the money lent (like CP or bonds), usually at rates higher than a secured loan.
Sometimes the companies can't afford the interest rates. So, they get creative to entice lenders.
One way is to offer nested options around either the company or perhaps future cash flows.
Aurora (ACB) recently issued some convertible debentures to finance the Sky expansion. Cool. CMED issued some a year and a bit ago. Ok.
Let's look at ACB's in detail, and find out what it cost them to get financing. I'm only gonna do a napkin calc. I could do the deep one, but, I don't want to spend 2 hours to get called names by the non-contributing lost stockhouse vagrants in here. Honestly, you can do the math too. And I'll point out where the complex is, so you'll know what you don't know.
Knowing what you don't know is really useful in life. And business.
I've seen a bunch in online boards say how great that 7% interest rate ACB got on the $75 million. Is that the actual cost of the money?
No. It's not.
They're paying a whole lot more than that. And if you're a shareholder, you should be really fucking pissed. I would be. I've never held them, or if I did, it was some short term swing trading last fall. If I can't remember, it wasn't much to remember.
Fourth - ACB's Convertible Debenture Issue
The $75 million lent is repayable on May 2, 2019. 7% interest, payable semi annually (June, Dec). I'm gonna ignore compounding, and do a straight calc. Materially, it won't matter.
The debentures also have a call option nested in them.
They also have a put option in them.
Both of those options have value. Both extrinsic and intrinsic.
So, the lender is not only getting interest on the cash, they're also getting free options from ACB. This was likely needed to sweeten the deal enough for them to do it.
There are models out there that value options. They hold up really well. Mathematical laws and all. Simplicity and elegance.
Fifth - Total Financing Cost
Annually, ACB is paying $5.25MM to service the debt. Total interest cost before they have to repay the principal is $10.5MM. Right?
What about that option value they gave up? ACB could've sold warrants/options, and used the premium received as financing too.
Instead, they gave to to the financiers. What did they give?
Using a $2.20 market price for ACB (today's, not May second), 2 years duration, 100% vol, the call option is $0.96.
The put option is $3.20.
So, effectively a call option on ~= 20 million shares, and a put on some ~= 15 million shares - assuming full strike on the $75 million.
If ACB had written options themselves and sold them, they could have collected the dough, issued contingent treasury shares as a reserve on the balance sheet, and kept the premiums as recompense.
I mentioned that there is some complexity in this. The hair on this is in the continuous conversion of the options (open to exercise at any time subject to 30 days notice - also known a a 'European' option, rather than an 'American' option). It's also got debt covenants within the debentures that prohibit ACB from further dilution (this is a failsafe for the lender, in case ACB decides to crash the stock by issuing another billion shares).
And - the lender keeps their downside intact (recall, if ACB goes tits up, they've got no asset to grab), the lender will short an equivalent $75million in stock. They'll take the money, and invest it in short term money markets while waiting, topping up their 7% nominal interest. It's called a credit box.
Despite it being a debenture, the lender is effectively fully securitized.
So, how much did that $75 million cost them?
Well, it's all there. I encourage you to look at this and work through it. I hope you have questions.
The CFO at Aurora will have the answers.
TLDR: Aurora is paying more than 37% in effective interest rates on their May 2 debenture issue.
EDIT - a couple of more links inserted and a clean up of my shitty writing.
EDIT 2 - at the bottom of this all is the impact on shareholders. What I assume is the obvious - I never did actually state. If the lender exercises, ACB will have to book a loss on their income statement for the difference between the strike of the call, and market. Potentially, it could be lots. If ACB hit $5 before May 2019, they'll take a $50MM hit to income. Probably wiping out a half year (or more) in sales. That's really the bottom of this all. Just fyi.
submitted by mollytime to TheCannalysts [link] [comments]

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